Glossary of Astronomical Cycles


According to modern science the sun is about 4.6 billion years old, and should last another 7 billion years. The heliosphere fills the solar system with a flow of tiny, fast, and electrically charges particles. The sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy which are continuously formed, modified, and destroyed. Some of them have formed their own solar systems. The Milky Way galaxy is only one of more than 100 billion galaxies in the visible universe.

The Milky Way Galaxy:       
Our Solar System is located in one of the arms of this spiral galaxy. We see our galaxy as band of spilled milk in the night sky crossing the ecliptic of the Sun's path at Taurus/Gemini on one side of the zodiac, and at Scorpio/Sagittarius on the other side.

It is estimated that The Milky Way completes a revolution in about 200, 216, or even up to 250 million years (216 ÷ 12 zodiac signs = 18 million years per sign). It may be that the sun has circled the galaxy about 18 times. The Milky Way is large, about 100-150,000 light years across in diameter.

One of the major tenets of geology is the KTB, Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, when 65 million years ago, the dinosaurs and other life forms succumbed to a meteor impact of this planet. A smaller meteor impact seems to have occurred 13,000 years ago centered in North America. Some researchers claim that our Milky Way journey passes through dusty interstellar cloud material blocking sunlight from reaching earth, and causing ice ages and ocean level drops.

According to Bob Berman in the Discover Magazine (Sept. 2006)  the entire Galaxy is  moving in the direction of the Andromeda Galaxy. The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are being pulled toward “the Great Attractor”, a mysterious concentration of mass beyond the constellation Virgo. At the moment science believes that the universe expands and retracts -an ancient notion of Vedic cosmology which is beautifully expressed in the god Brahma expanding outward and then drawing everything back into himself, sleeping for a while, and then expanding again.

The Earth
The Earth is subject to it all the movements of the universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and its own solar system. The earth also experiences a multiplicity of changes in its own dynamics of axis tilt, wobble, orbital eccentricity and inclination, orbital relativity to the orbits of the other planets, and all other changes that can pertain to a heavenly body. The ancient Hindu even said that the earth changed its size. Working upon the researches of Adhemar and Croll; the Serbian scientist Milankovitch proposed in the 1920’s that all these factors would naturally influence changes in the climate of the earth. The eccentricity of the shape of the earth’s orbit changes from elliptical to round during a cycle of 100,000 years. When the earth has an elliptical orbit, as it does now, the ellipse rotates during a cycle of 22,000 years. There are also variations in the obliquity of the tilt of the earth’s axis ( from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees; presently 23.44) over a period of 41,000 to 46,000 years. And of course, there is the wobble (also called Precession ) of the earth’s axis over the period of 25,920 years.

"Astronomy is responsible for almost all climate changes," says Richard Muller of Lawrence Berkeley National Labs has discovered mysterious cycles of 62 million years in the rise and fall of biodiversity over the past 542 million years.  Muller and his team examined the astronomical cycles caused by variations in the tilt of Earth's orbit. They found that the tilt cycles match the cycles of the ice ages. "When we look at ancient records of planets, these astronomical cycles appear in the climate record. It is important to study ancient climates because the past is often the key to the future."

Plate tectonics and ocean-floor spread seem to substantiate Pangaea. It is said that during 2800 million years that four super-continents have formed and broke apart again.

Iran-Vedic-Hindu Cycles
The astronomical cycles mentioned below came from Prometheus, the brother of Atlas. These were preserved in ancient Iran-Vedic-Hindu Astronomy. Many traditions have been built upon this foundation such as Zarathustra and the Maga, the Chaldaean, Babylonians, and the Hindu of India from where it spread to Angkor Wat.

All the numbers are sexagesimal, founded upon the number six (6)

All cycles are an enactment of creation-life-dissolution and recreation once again; if the superior cycle will allow it. The world is created, destroyed, and recreated through the four elements of moist-water, hot-fire, dry- wind, and cold- ice.

This sexagesimal system cannot be said to originate with any one nation. It is part of universal scientific culture. John Taylor (d.1864), Piazzi Smith, and later, William Fix; have shown that the perimeter of the Great Pyramid’s sockets equals a half minute of equatorial latitude, or 1/43,200 of the earth’s circumference. This is very important, because, irrespective of feet, cubits, miles, or meters –the Earth is 43,200x the size of the Great Pyramid. The height of the Pyramid including the platform, equals 1/43,200 of the earth’s polar radius. 2160 years is the sexagesimal value for the precession of the vernal equinox through one sign, or 30 degrees. 4320 years = 2 zodiac signs or 60 degrees.

309,173,760,000,000 years are equal to 100 years of God (Brahma) which represents a lifetime of Braham –a lifetime of the Universe. The Universe is dissolved 36,000 times, after which everything is withdrawn into the god Siva. After this a new universe is born. All these cycles repeat themselves infinitely through waves of creation, preservation and dissolution

8,640,000,000 years: Iran-Vedic-Hindu, a day and a night of Brahma. A sexagesimal number; hereafter denoted by (60).
4,320,000,000 years: Iran-Vedic-Hindu, a day of Brahma (60).
4,320,000 years sidereal years: Iran-Vedic-Hindu, the Caturyuga period. Others call it the Mahayuga (four yugas)
1,728,000 years, Krita-Yuga, or the Vedic Satya-Yuga Period (1728x.75=1296).
1,296,000 the Treta-Yuga Period (666x1296=864).
864,000 the Dvapara-Yuga Period
432,000 years, Kali-Yuga period. Curiously, this number is familiar to the seafaring Norse as the number of the 432,000 warriors of Valhalla. 

These cycles are derived as follows:
In the sexagesimal system:
60 to the 3rd power = 60x60x60 =216,000 years
Kali-Yuga (2x60 to the 3rd power)= 432,000 years
Dvapara-Yuga (4x60 to the 3rd) =864,000 years
Treta-Yuga (6x60 to the 3rd) = 1,296,000 years (864 + 432)
Krita-Yuga (8x60 to the 3rd) =1,728,000 years (1296 + 432)

Cosmology & The Sexagesimal System
The ancient astronomical system was based upon the number six. The ancient people divided the heavens into a circle of 360 degrees divided by 12 zodiac images of 30 degrees each.

Charles William Johnson in his The Numbers of the Universe and the Ancient Reckoning System of Mesoamerica has made some amazing discoveries in which the size, speed, orbits, time, and chronology are inter-related through the sexagesimal system. His discovery is one of the prime foundation of Cosmology, a system in which everything explains everything else, and all things are related. His idea is based upon the fractal of 216, which is the product of 6 x 6 x 6 = 216: 

216 -fractal of the Moon's diameter, 2160 miles
432 –fractal of the Sun’s radius, 432,000 miles
864 –fractal of the Sun’s diameter, 864,000 miles
3024 –fractal of the Great Pyramid’s perimeter, and therefore a fractal of the Earth's equatorial size.

Johnson further discovered that one-half of 216 = 108 x 864,000 (Sun's diameter) = 93,312,000 which is the Earth's median orbital distance from the Sun. Johnson has also discovered that the element of time resides in these numbers as 2160 is the number of years that the cycle of the Precession of the Vernal equinoxes takes to complete one 30 degree sign of the zodiac. A complete revolution takes 25,920 years. Johnson has also done studies of the Mesoamerican systems saying, “The numbers 360c and 260c were chosen numbers within the ancient reckoning system, numbers that were chosen by design, evidently based upon knowledge of the Universe…"

In my research of maps, I have found that many are based upon a system founded upon the number eight. This is because in land survey and navigation it is simplest to determine a cross founded upon the determination of North, South, East, and West. Then the simple dissection of the angles of the cross presents a map divided into an octagon of eight fields which correspond to direction and to the calendar seasons and their quarter-days. We assume that later it was discovered that the sexagesimal system is really supreme in cosmic era and time measurement. As well, construction of the Star of David is very simple: from a point, a compass can draw an arc. A point upon the arc creates a line equal to the first. From that new point, return your compass back to the original point –and you create an equilateral triangle. Then the sides of the triangle are easily bisected to create the perfect six sided figure.

Large Mayan Dates
Morton says, “Some Mayan hieroglyphs record dates even as far back as 400 million years ago. The Mayan considered their calendar a gift from the earliest people (p.193)”. But Milone & Kelley in their Ancient Skies (p.360) report on the Yaxchilan inscription on a Maya ball court giving a date of 10,240,000,000,000 years, or tuns, which are years of 360 days.

Large Chinese Cycles of the Ages
23,639,040 years is the Great World Cycle.
138,240 years the planetary cycles repeat themselves.

Hebrew Calendar Larger Cycles
689,472 years the full Hebrew Calendar Cycle. Please see Remy Landau, Hebrew Festival Calendar Science for other Great Cycles. The Hebrew Molad reckoning calculates the time of any mean lunar conjunction to within one day every 15,304 years.

Milankovitch & Kroll Climate Cycles:
200,000 year cycle of the reversal of the direction of the poles of the magnetic field of the earth. Some estimates are as high as 750,000 years. This does not mean that the earth flips over.
100,000 year cycle of the earth’s orbit from circular to elliptical, and return to circular.
70,000 year cycle of the inclination of the Earth’s orbit –up and down relative to its present orbit.
40,000 year cycle of the tilt of the axis (obliquity) between the range of 22.1 and 24.5 degrees (presently 23.44); with respect to the plane of the earth’s orbit.

36,525 years. Egyptian cycle derived from 25 x 1461 years (Pseudo-Manetho). The return of the star Sirius is their so called SOTHIC cycle of 1461 years. This is part of the computation of the exact length of the year by comparing the sun and the star Sirius.
PRECESSION of the Vernal Equinoxes & numbers in that range.
26,000 years [not divisible by 6] Mayan, cycle of the Pleiades. The Tzolkin Long Count Calendar. The Pleiades also had a 52 year cycle (26,000 = 52 x 500). John Major Jenkins in his Mayan Cosmogenesis & Galactic Alignment says that in December 21, 2012 the Solstice Sun will be in a special alignment not only with the Galactic Equator, but also with the Galactic Center. This alignment happens because of the cycle of the Precession of the Vernal Equinoxes. Scientists say that there is an enormous Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The Maya called this the Black Road, Xibalba. Some have made the analogy with the Birth Canal of the Sky Goddess. Jenkins uses the Pleiades Cycle number of 26,000, rather than the sexagesimal 25,920 number.

25,920 years. Iran-Vedic-Hindu function of the microcosm of breath and the sexagesimal system (25,920 /12 = 2,160 divided by 360 = 6.). [also by 6 = 4320 years, a chronological number.] 25,920 is also used by Plato as the Great World Year.25,920 /6 = 4320 /6 = 720 /6 = 120 / 6 = 20, the digital number, the amount of fingers and toes.
25,714.28 years. Iran-Vedic-Hindu estimate of Precession @71.42857 years x 360.

24,925 years. According to the historian Manetho in his Aegyptiaca which represents Egyptian history, the reigns of the gods, demi-gods, spirits of the dead, and human kings.

10,800 BC -8,640 BC, the Precessional Age of Leo –a balanced and favorable climate for building and science (based on 25,920 year total precessional period)
8,640 BC -6,480 BC, the Precessional Age of Cancer –a very wet climatic period, unfavorable to human progress and communication.
6,480 BC -4,320 BC, the Precessional Age of Gemini –a very cold climatic period.

7,625, 7601, 7555 BC Creation to Christ, taken from Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities
5984 -3470 BC about 33 different estimates of the time from Adam to Christ, taken from many authors by Albiruni and Keating. 4196 BC is another estimate.

5411 or 4004 BC estimates for Hebrew Genesis:
                                     Ussher       Hales
                                       B.C.         B.C.
    Creation                      4004        5411
    Flood                          2348        3155
    Abram leaves Haran      1921        2078
    Exodus                        1491       1648
    Destruction of the 
    Temple                         588          586

Some Christians and Jews anticipated the great king & Messiah in the year 1239 AD because this corresponded to 5000 years after the Creation in some of their reckoning calendars. By adding 3761 years to the Georgian Calendar date, the correct Hebrew Calendar year is arrived at (5000 -3761=1239AD). As well, the Rabbi of Jerusalem were intimidated by Alexander the Great to recognize him as the Great Messiah and King. They were forced to revise their chronologies by the period of Alexander’s birth = a minus 356 years. If we add these years back again to the chronology (Ussher 4004+356=4360) we get a date of about 4360BC which is very near the date of the movement of the Precessional Cycle into Taurus, the house of Venus and the exaltation of the Moon. (4004+323 Alexander’s death = 4327BC)

4,320 BC -2,160 BC the Precessional Age of Taurus, a very favorable and balanced climatic period for all human development. This period should be called the Taurian Renaissance because it was a period of global science, reconstruction, building, and technology

4300 BC. John Playfair a member of the Royal Society determined in 1790 that the beginning of the Aryan-Hindu Vedas was 4300 BC. His research was based upon 9 different astronomical parameters

3,600 years is the Babylonian Saros Period. After that period the first mean motion of the sun has completed a count of 1,296,000, the number of seconds in a circle. The second mean motion of the sun has completed 21,600, the number of minutes in a circle (Dwight William Johnson, Hindu Cosmological Time cycles)

3102 BC, Friday, 18th February. Iran-Vedic-Hindu, the beginning of the present Kali-Yuga. On this date Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury were in conjunction near the star, Zeta Piscium.

3114 BC, August 31st: archaeologists date this as the beginning of the Mayan Long Count. After 13 cycles of 400 years (13x400=5200-3114 BC=2086 AD. The difference between this date and 2012AD has to do with the Mayan day and month calendar.) Some people say that the next cycle is to begin December 27, 2012, after the transit of Venus across the face of the sun earlier in June.

2767 BC, A mass conjunction of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus occurred at the summer solstice. (Ancient Skies p.269).

2160 BC –AD is the time period of Aries which produced an extremely favorable period of human development. This is only true in combination with the other cycles of Galactic Progress and Galactic Season (please see our climate chart).

A period of 2920 years: Employing the technique of cyclic buildup, the Mayans, Babylonians, and Greeks were able to link the cycles of Venus and the moon with mathematical harmony (Aveni 94). This relation of the two cycles was significant, since Venus was universally regarded as an omen-bringer. The seasonal year was just as important to the Mayan and Babylonian (and Greek) agrarian civilizations, since the crop varied with the seasons. Accordingly, the "favored interval" of time measurement was a whole number exactly divisible by all three cycle periods (Aveni 94)--2920 days. The Greeks called this 2920-day cycle the "Octaeteris" (Aveni 95), probably because it is just about 8 solar years. It also encompasses 5 rounds of the Venus cycle, and just about 99 moons (95). A remarkable example is the Mayan discovery of eclipse cycles, which occur at the intersections of several other cycles--those of the moon, earth, and sun.

1192 – 1183 BC. The Trojan War, and the final sack of the city.

980 BC -2060 AD Newton’s Theory of Universal History, concluding with the reappearance of Christ.

756 AD, May 10: an epochal date in Iran-Vedic-Hindu

616 AD, July 29. The Great King of Palenque, Lord Pakal ascended to the throne.

120 years the life span of Moses, an important number in Hebrew tradition.

104 years = 2 Maya Calendar Rounds. According to J.M. Jenkins the 365 day haab cycle, the 260 day tzolkin cycle, and the Venus cycle all synchronize every 104 years. This day is known as 1 Ahau: the Lord, Sun, or Marksman who shoots forth all three cycles from the sun on this day; also known as the Sacred Day of Venus.

76 years which is four times the Metonic Cycle of 19 years or 235 lunations as computed by Callippus (370-310 BC) in an attempt to more closely harmonize the lunar and the solar year. The number 72: Crichton Miller reminds us of the 72 conspirators against Osiris, and the 72 virgins of Islam. 72 divided by 12 =6.

60 years: Eisler (p.159) writes that the Syrian Bardaisan in his work On the Conjunctions of the Stars of Heaven presented the equation that 60 years equals 2 revolutions of Saturn, or 5 revolutions of Jupiter, or 40 of Mars, 72 of Venus, 120 of Mercury, and 720 revolutions of the Moon [this must be re-checked].

56 year cycle ( 1/1/07) On the same date the ecliptical position of the lunar north node moves only 3 degrees East of the last alignment of the tropical year and lunar nutation. McMinn says that 9 and 56 year cycles are of significance in earthquake cycles. This cycle also seems related to the Stock Market.

 54 YEAR Triple Saros cycle

52 years (Morton p.135) Toltec sacred ceremony performed every 52 years at Tula at the Temple of the Morning Star, Temple of the Atlantes. A cycle of four lots of 13 years, after which time the 13 months of the 260 day calendar returned to the original starting position relative to the 365 solar calendar. This was celebrated by the ‘start of the new fires’ when the Pleiades appeared in the sky.

28–29 years relate to the movements of Saturn. The retrograde loops return on the same day of the year every 29 practical years during which this planet goes through all the signs of the zodiac. 28 years x 378 days (Saturn’s synodic period) = 29 x 365 days. The Aubrey circle of Stonehenge has 56 holes (28 x2), perhaps to track the movements of Saturn (Heath p.12)

18 -20 year conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn (c. below)

19 years (sometimes recorded as 18.5, or 18.73, or 20 years) is the period which the Greeks called the Metonic cycle, after Meton its discoverer. This cycle was a part of ancient tradition world-wide long before the Greeks. In Chaco Canyon, the moon advances along marked points along the horizon to an extreme turning point to retreat over its path again to another extreme in the other direction on the horizon. Then the Moon repeated this journey over a period of 19 years, or 235 lunations which was accurate to within two hours of the sun’s cycle over the same period of 19 years. It is also noteworthy that three years nearly correspond to 37 lunations, accurate to about 3 days.(Heath p.9). In China the cycle was called chang, and 4 x 19 years = 76 years was called pu, with other intervals of 513, 1539, 4617 years (Anc. Skies). Also examine 18 year Saros Cycle of 223 synodic months when the Sun, Moon, and the Moon's nodes again re-align very closely. There is an important half Saros Cycle of of 9 tropical years. Daniel of the ASA (The Arizona Astrologer, May 2007) visited the standing stones at Callanish on the Isle of Lewis on Lammas Eve and was told by locals that every 19 years –the Moon walks on the land at the calling of the cuckoos, the shinning ones will return. This can only occur between 58-59 degrees latitude north or south. During the solstice full moon, the moon skims over the horizon on a very low arc, appearing to walk on the surface of the earth on a mountain range with the shape of a pregnant woman. On this occasion the Moon set in her belly.

Zadust or Zarathustra, sometimes, Zoroaster.
Just to give you an idea of the rarity of Zarathustra’s science (could be as old as c. 7,000 BC): It is said that he calculated a Prime Global Meridian right through the city of Sistan (Nimrouz) located almost halfway between Japan and the Western coasts of Africa, and 33.5 degrees latitude –halfway between the northern inhabitable climes. The ancient Iranians always started the New Year with the Vernal Equinox. Here, Zarathustra calculated the rare appearance of the “New Day”, when the precise point of the Spring Equinox exactly coincided with sunrise viewed from that point in Persia. His mathematical skills were so advanced that his predictions forecast the “New Day” of 1725 BC and 487 BC. The latter event was sighted upon a calibrated square block placed within the central hall of the palace of Tehran. It is assumed that the Magi’s search for the Messiah was based upon Zarathustra’s calculation of the end and the beginning of the Great Galactic Cycle, associated with the appearance of the New Messiah, Jesus Christ. The possible date for Zarathustra is 8,000 BC.

584 day, the average cycle (synodic) of Venus around the earth. This varies between 581-587 days. The Maya were very interested in these anomalies from which they discovered a Great Cycle of Venus which began in August 13, 3114 BC. This Great Cycle is set to end, or repeat, on December 21, 2012. Mayan and Aztec believed that the world had been destroyed and re-created several times by the four elements at the time of the fulfillment of the cycles.

520 day cycle 13 x 40 days which is 3 eclipse cycles

260 day cycle of 13 x 20 days. Mesoamerican (see below). Also, the 9 moon sacred cycle: 9 x 28.8 days = 260 days

173 day cycle in the moon’s motion that is imposed by the sun’s gravitational field as the earth-moon system circles the sun. A factor in predicting solar eclipses (Corliss, Ancient Infrastructure p.52)

40 day cycle is used by many religions for their Paschal, Lent, and Nativity cycles. As well, the menstrual cycle varies between 21 – 40 days. 40 x 12 x 9 = 4320, is a noted sexagismal. Also a double of the number 20.

The number 20 is the count of the fingers, thumbs, and toes. This is an ancient day count system, just as the number 10 is the digits of both hands

Maya Astronomical Cycles & the planet Venus:
One of the many important Maya and Mesoamerican calendars is the Tzolkin -based on 13 months of 20 day periods =260 days. Every 52 years the Tzolkin cycle synchronizes with the ordinary or vague year (the Haab) of 365 days. This period is known as the Calendar Round. 52 years is also part of the Pleiades Cycle of 52 x 500 = 26,000 years.

There are other cycles of 18 months of 20 day periods = 360 days to which five sacred extra days are added to form the ordinary year. According to John Major Jenkins the 260 day cycle was important in planting and harvesting of crops. It also approximates the human gestation period 9 x 29 == 261

Archaeologists have established a date of Aug. 31, 3114 BC as the beginning of the latest Maya Cycle which supposedly ends on Dec. 27, 2012; because 13 cycles of 400 years = 5,200 years.

Venus statistics:
This planet is almost the same size as our earth. Venus takes 224.7 days to complete one orbit which is almost circular with only a minimal eccentricity, and inclined only 3.394 degrees to the general plane of the axis of the sun? Its axis is tilted 177.36 degrees which means that it is upside down to the earth and spinning in the opposite direction to us. It spins extremely slowly completing one rotation in 243 days.

Mr. J.M. Jenkins says, “That Venus worship gave rise to astronomy, science, math and probably civilization itself…As we know, civilization itself was spurred forth by the goddess…” More importantly, he tells us that 5 Venus cycles equals 8 years:

5 years x 584 days = 2920 days divided by 365 = 8 years
During this 8 year period, Venus traces a pentagram, a five-pointed star around the circle of the ecliptic. Also 13 of these 8 year periods = 104, called a Venus Round. This 104 is of course 2 x 52 years –and therefore is a synchronization of the sacred Tzolkin, the Haab, and the Venus Round –as well as a factor of the Pleiades cycle.

Also it may be wondered if our time system of 7 days of 52 weeks, plus one day = 365 days of the year –may have been another factor within this all encompassing synchronization.

Great Conjunctions of Jupiter & Saturn:
Jupiter revolves around the Sun in a period of about 12 years; while Saturn takes almost 30 years to go a full circuit. Therefore, every 18 -20 years both planets are in conjunction. The last time was May 31, 2000. The next conjunction will occur on Dec. 2020.

There is a discernable Trigon (triangular) Pattern of the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn which repeat almost every 20 years about 120 degrees backward (opposite to the direction of the progress of the Sun) in the 360 degree circle of the zodiac). 40 x these 20 year conjunctions = 800 years which is the progress of one point of the Trigon 1/3 of the way around the zodiac. All the way around the zodiac is a complete cycle of the Trigon 3 x 800 = 2400 years. Cronus/Saturn was, of course, associated with Time. Cosmologers thought this cycle was significant & Kepler drew a diagram of the 2400 year cycle.

Position of the Center of the Galaxy:
In 1959, the IAU defined the galactic coordinate system in reference to the Equatorial coordinate system.[1] The north galactic pole is defined to be at RA 12h49m, Dec +27.4‹ (B1950), and the zero of longitude is the great semicircle that originates from this point along the line in position angle 123‹ with respect to the equatorial pole. The galactic longitude increases in the same direction as right ascension. Galactic latitude is positive towards the north galactic pole, the poles themselves at }90‹ and the galactic equator being zero.

The equivalent system referred to J2000 has[2] the north galactic pole at 12h51m26.282s +27‹07Œ42.01 (J2000), the zero of longitude at the position angle of 122.932‹. The point in the sky at which the galactic latitude and longitude are both zero is 17h45m37.224s −28‹56Œ10.23 (J2000). This is offset slightly from the radio source Sagittarius A*, which is the best physical marker of the true galactic center. Sagittarius A* is located at 17h45m40.04s −29‹00Œ28.1 (J2000). (Wikipedia-May 2005)


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